I learned English sounds with the use of phonetic symbols. These are used in a branch of linguistics called phonetics.
Whenever I learn a new language, my brain registers new sounds with those symbols. So, learning phonetic symbols is very useful.
Phonics, on the other hand, is a method of teaching how to read and write English language to native speakers of English. This method has been widely used in primary education and for teaching adults who have difficulties with reading and writing English.
Since I am not a native speaker of English, I find this method to be rather cumbersome and ineffective.
Here are two videos explaining the articulation of sounds.
Introduction to IPA table is given below.